At work recently, I found myself trying to explain the Work-Efficiency vs Step-Efficiency tradeoff to a coworker, but when I searched for online resources to help I couldn’t find any that I liked, so I decided to take a shot at writing my own. I found this idea presented in a video lecture series about programming for GPGPUs on Youtube a while ago. However, it’s just as applicable to any form of parallel processing, from SIMD instructions running on a single CPU core up to massive clusters of thousands of computers. This is a short post explaining this tradeoff and some of the implications.
Work Efficiency vs Step Efficiency
To start with, lets define what those terms mean:
- Work Efficiency is the total amount of work that is done across one or more parallel workers to achieve some desired result.
- Step Efficiency is the critical path of sequential work that must be completed to achieve some desired result.
The observation is that optimizations to improve step efficiency (eg. splitting one large task into many smaller ones) nearly always worsen work efficiency (by increasing the total work done for the same result, by adding coordination overhead, locking, etc.). Conversely, optimizations that improve work efficiency sometimes worsen step efficiency. This is a more-specific version of the general Throughput vs Latency tradeoff.
As an example, lets consider the problem of summing a large array of numbers.
The most work-efficient algorithm is a simple sequential sum - add the first and second numbers, then add the sum to the third, and then the fourth, and so on until you reach the end of the array. There’s no way that we can further reduce the work here - we must read and add every element to the sum, the overhead is as low as it could possibly be. However, this could still be slow - the user must wait for one CPU core to grind through all N array elements by itself, which means the wall-clock time could be long.
Another algorithm would be to add the first and second numbers together on one core, the third and fourth on a second core, and so on, saving the results into a new array which is half the size as the old. Then, we could repeat the reduction on the new array until we’re left with a single sum. Of course, we could also give more than two elements to each core. This algorithm is highly step-efficient - the wall-clock time is proportional to log2(N). However, the work efficiency is reduced - the overall system now must start new threads, allocate temporary buffers, load the array elements and write the temporary sums back into the buffer, etc.
Of course the same idea applies to much more complex problems. If you were working on an algorithm to search for an optimum in a complex mathematical function, you might improve work efficiency by having all the parallel processors stop periodically to share information (and thus narrow the search space) at the cost of worsened step efficiency (because now you’ve added this sequential sharing step that wasn’t there previously).
Another way of thinking about step efficiency is - what would dominate the wall-clock time if you had infinitely many parallel processors? In the real world of finite processors, Task 2 might be blocked by Task 1 because it uses Task 1’s output (a data dependency) or just because no processor is available to execute Task 2 until Task 1 is done. If we had infinite processors though, the second reason would never happen - there is always a processor available for a task - so the wall-clock time would be determined by the data dependencies.
Well, for the most part I use this as a mental model or a way to describe the performance characteristics of some code. It does have some practical implications though.
The right balance between step efficiency and work efficiency is affected by the number of parallel processors available. As a rule of thumb, if you have far more parallel tasks than processors, it’s usually best to optimize for work efficiency even at the cost of step efficiency. On the other hand, if you have far fewer tasks than processors, it’s usually best to do the opposite.
To return to the summing-an-array example - the sequential sum would be a terrible fit for any situation where more than one CPU core is available - even splitting the array into two parallel tasks would save far more time than the small overhead incurred by the split. However, if we only had one CPU core available (perhaps in an embedded device) then the two-by-two parallel reduction method would be a much worse fit - the extra overhead from allocating buffers and context-switching threads and so on would make it much slower than a simple sequential scan.
Earlier I said that improving step efficiency nearly always has a cost for work efficiency, but that the reverse is only sometimes true. This isn’t really a fundamental thing, it’s just that in my experience nearly all software is doing more work than is strictly necessary to accomplish its goal. Most optimizations of most software just remove unnecessary work, and thus make the software more work efficient with no cost in step-efficiency.
I hope that this idea helps you to understand the performance of your parallel programs!