When optimizing code, it's often helpful to profile it to help understand why it produces the measured performance characteristics. has several features to assist with profiling benchmarks.

Note on running benchmark executables directly

Because of how Cargo passes certain command-line flags (see the FAQ for more details) when running benchmarks, benchmark executables expect a --bench argument on their command line. Cargo adds this automatically, but when running the executables directly (eg. in a profiler) you will need to add the --bench argument.

--profile-time benchmark executables accept a --profile-time <num_seconds> argument. If this argument is provided to a run, the benchmark executable will attempt to iterate the benchmark executable for approximately the given number of seconds, but will not perform its usual analysis or save any results. This way,' analysis code won't appear in the profiling measurements.

For users of external profilers such as Linux perf, simply run the benchmark executable(s) under your favorite profiler, passing the profile-time argument. For users of in-process profilers such as Google's cpuprofiler, read on.

Implementing In-Process Profiling Hooks

For developers who wish to use profiling hooks provided by an existing crate, skip to "Enabling In-Process Profiling" below.

Since version 0.3.0, has supported adding hooks to start and stop an in-process profiler such as cpuprofiler. This hook takes the form of a trait, criterion::profiler::Profiler.

fn main() {
pub trait Profiler {
    fn start_profiling(&mut self, benchmark_id: &str, benchmark_dir: &Path);
    fn stop_profiling(&mut self, benchmark_id: &str, benchmark_dir: &Path);

These functions will be called before and after each benchmark when running in --profile-time mode, and will not be called otherwise. This makes it easy to integrate in-process profiling into benchmarks when wanted, without having the profiling instrumentation affect regular benchmark measurements.

Enabling In-Process Profiling

Once you (or an external crate) have defined a profiler hook, using it is relatively easy. You will need to override the Criterion struct (which defaults to ExternalProfiler) by providing your own measurement using the with_profiler function and overriding the default Criterion object configuration.

fn main() {
extern crate my_custom_profiler;
use my_custom_profiler::MyCustomProfiler;

fn fibonacci_profiled(criterion: &mut Criterion) {
    // Use the criterion struct as normal here.

fn profiled() -> Criterion {

criterion_group! {
    name = benches;
    config = profiled();
    targets = fibonacci_profiled

The profiler hook will only take effect when running in --profile-time mode.